Refractory Unresponsive, not responding to proper treatment, stubborn
Refractory coeliac disease A coeliac disease not responding to glutenfree diet. In a primary RCD there is an initial treatment failure, and in secondary RCD a subsequent failure. RCD can be a sign of malignant transformation resulting in an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Ulcerative jejunoileitis iis probably the same condition as EATL.
Refractory sprue A coeliac disease not responding to glutenfree diet. In a primary RS there is an initial treatment failure, and in secondary RS a subsequent failure. RS can be a sign of malignant transformation resulting in an enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL). Ulcerative jejunoileitis iis probably the same condition as EATL.
Regenerative polyps See Hyperplastic polyps
Regional enterocolitis Another name for Crohn´s disease.
Regional ileitis Another name for Crohn´s disease.
Regional ileocolitis Another name for Crohn´s disease.
Regurgitation Return of stomach content e.g. food into the mouth
Remicade Trademark for a drug containing infliximab, used in the treatment of Crohn´s disease.
Renal (Adj) Relating to the kidneys
Renal failure Impaired renal function due to a kidney disease. Renal failure can be a complication of acute liver failure ( Hepatorenal syndrome).
Resectio, resection The surgical removal of a part of the stomach or intestines.
RIA (Abbr) Radioimmunoassay
Ribavirin A antiviral drug used mainly in the treatment of Hepatitis C.
Rickets A disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, mainly seen in childhood. The bones become malformed and soft. The vitamin D deficiency may be nutritional (or caused by malabsorption) or due to lack of sunlight exposure.
Rieders bismuth meal A contrast medium developed by a German doctor, Hermann Rieder, used in the beginning of the 20th century in xray examinations of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Rifampicin A semisyntetic antibiotic drug used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Rifampicin stimulates the function of the liver cells and has been used in the treatment of severe pruritus caused by primary biliary cirrhosis. Rifampicin can have severe adverse effects. It can cause hepatitis and if not taken regularly renal damage.
Rifaximin A semisyntetic drug that is not absorbed from the bowel when taken perorally, and side-effects are rare. Rifaximin has been used in the treatment of travellers diarrhea. In the future it may have on important role in treatment and prevention of diverticulitis, and perhaps also in the treatment of Crohns disease and irritable bowel syndrome.
Right colic flexure Flexura hepatis, hepatic flexure, the junction of the ascending and transverse part of the large bowel, situated anterior to the lower part of the right kidney and inferior to the right lobe of the liver.
Risk factor Anything that increases the risk of a disease or a complication of a disease. Typical risk factors are age (both high and low), smoking, alcohole abuse or some genetic factors.
RNA (Abbr) Ribonucleic acid. A nucleic acid in the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell. In some viruses, RNA is the only nucleic acid.
Rofecoxib A highly selective COX-2 inhibitor. This drug is used as treatment for pain and inflammation for example in arthritis and lack many of the gastrintestinal side effects of NSAID´s.
Rokitansky-Cushing ulcer Ulcerative lesions in the lower third of the oesophagus, gastric fundus or duodenum associated with and probably due to severe brain lesions.
Rome II Criteria Diagnostic criterias used in the diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, IBS and other functional gastrointestinal disorders. According to these criteras, a patient with IBS should have had 12 weeks or more of abdominal discomfort (relieved with defecation, associated with a change in frequency of stool, and associated with a change in form of stool) during the past 12 months, without any structural or metabolic abnormalities to explain the symptoms. The patient should also have at least one of the following symptoms: Abnormal stool frequency, abnormal stool form, abdormal stool passage, passage of mucus and bloating or feeling of abdominal distension, on at least a quarter of occasions or days. The Rome II criterias have been made by "Functional GI Disorders Coordinating Committee", which is now going on with the new Rome III criterias. The Rome II criterias can be found on the Net, www.romecriteria.org.
Rotor syndrome A rare familial conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The prognosis is excellent and no treatment is needed.
Rubin-Quentin tube An instrument formerly used for obtaining small bowel biopsies in order to verify a possible gluten enteropathy.
Rugae of the stomach Gastric folds, folds of the gastric mucosa
Rumination syndrome A functional gastrointestinal disorder, causing regurgitation of recently swallowed food into the mouht. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months lf: 1. Persistent or recurrent regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth with subsequent remastication and swallowing or spitting it out; 2. Absence of nausea or vomiting; 3. Cessation of the process when the regurgitated material becomes acidic; 4. Absence of pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, achalasia or other recognized motility disorder.