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The GASTROLAB Dictionary

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NAFL Nonalcoholic fatty liver, nonalcohol-induced fatty liver.

Nail polish Agents used to give nails an attractive colour. Use of nail polish has been showed to increase the risk of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

NANB (Abbr) Non A Non B (used in connection with hepatitis)

NANBH (Abbr) Non A Non B Hepatitis (most often C-hepatitis, this term was used before C-hepatitis virus was identified)

NASH Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Natalizumab A drug currently being developed by Elan Pharmaceuticals, a monoclonal antibody, to be used in the treatment of Crohn´s disease and Multiple Sclerosis. Trade mark: Antegren.

National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance Awareness (NCCRA) An nonprofit organization in the USA, the mission of which is to increase the awareness of colorectal cancer and preventive testing to exclude this disease.

Nausea A feeling of a need to vomit

NCCRA See National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance Awareness

Nectotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) A severe bowel inflammation mostly affecting premature infants. I usually occurs during the first 2 weeks of life. Blood transfusions might predispose for this disease, which is treated with nasogastric drainage, intravenous fluids and antibiotics.


Acute necrotizing oesophagitis
Necrotizing oesophagitis, acute is a severe condition rarely seen in elderly most often seriously ill patients. The etiology of this disease is thought to be an ischemic injury and/or a serious infection. The main symptoms are painful swallowing and bleeding, hematemesis. This condition can occur in the postoperative period, in patients with metastatic cancer and it might be associated with some drug treatment. After healing oesophageal strictures are often seen. The oesophageal wall often darkens, hence the name "black oesophagus". Lye ingestion, acanthosis nigricans and primary pigmented melanoma are the main differential diagnoses.

Slideshow:

Recurrent Crohns disease in a neoterminal ileum


Neoterminal Ileum The "new" last part of the small bowel after a surgical resection of ileum terminale or after an ileocaecal resection. If the resection was done because of Crohns disease, a recurrent Crohns disease in the neoterminal ileum is common.

NERD (Abbr) Non-Erosive Reflux Disease. Could also mean Negative-Endoscopy Reflux Disease, a condition where the patient has reflux symptoms without any findings in endoscopy.

NET (Abbr) Neuroendocrine tumours

Neurotensin A gastrointestinal hormone produced in the last part of the small bowel. The main physiological effect is delaying of gastric emptying.

Nexium Registered trade mark for esomeprazole, a new "secon generation" proton pump inhibitor developed by AstraZeneca. Esomperazole has a greater and faster effect on gastric acid secretion than the older PPI´s.

NIAID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (in USA)

Nissen fundoplication See fundoplication

NNH (Abbr) Number Needed to Harm, the number of patients receiving a treatment that would lead to on case of a harmful side effect of the treatment.

NNT (Abbr) Number Needed to Treat, the number of patients who need to be treated in order to prevent one atack of disease, for example the number of patients needed to be treated with ulcer medications in order to prevent one gastrointestinal bleeding.

NOD2-gene See Gene

Noct- (pre) Concering night, e.g. nocturia, the passage of urin at night

Non A-E viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis not caused by the known hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D, E). Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus can cause acute hepatitis and there are probably still some unknown virus which can cause acute liver injury.

Non coeliac gluten sensivity A condition where the patient gets symtoms from glutencontaining food but where classic coeliac disease cannot be verified. This condition affects up to 6 % of the population according to one study.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Liver injury not caused by excessive alcohol consumption though histologically similarities. Obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are the most important etiologic factors, other causes are rapid weight loss and total parenteral nutrition. Fatty liver which can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are the typical manifestations.

Non-alchoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Achronic liver inflammation (hepatitis) not caused by excessive alcohol consumption.

Nonorganic dyspepsia See Nonulcer dyspepsia

Nontropical sprue An old name of the disease now known as coeliac disease or gluten enteropathy

Nonulcer dyspepsia Pain in the upper abdomen resembling the symtoms of gastric ulcer disease, but without any significant findings in upper endoscopy. About two thirds of patients with upper abdominal pain do not have any abnormalities in routine examinations, and nonulcer dyspepsia is a very common disorder.. This dyspepsia has many names: nonorganic dyspepsia, essential dyspepsia and dyspepsia of unknown origin. Drugs used in the treatment of ulcer disease are quite often effective also in nonulcer dyspepsia.

Normo- (pre) Normal, for example normotensive, with normal (blood-) pressure

Normocyte A red blood cell with a normal size.

NortriptylineA tricyclic antidepresant used in the treatment of depression. This type of drugs are also frequently used for functional gastrointestinal disorders as they alter pain perception and have effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion. The main adverse effects are dry mouth, constipation and sexual dysfunction.

Nosocomial (Adj) Describing an infectious disease spreading in hospital environment. Also the hospital staff can get nosocomial infections.

NOTES (Abbr> Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery

NS (Abbr) Non Significant

NSAID (Abbr) Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug

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December 9, 2011