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the GASTROLAB Digestive Dictionary
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IA (Abbr) Intra-arterial, intra-arterially|
Idiopahtic (Adj) About a condition or disease which arises spontaneously without andy known cause.
Idiopathic aphtous ulceration A very common disease causing recurring ulcers in the mouth, on the lips, cheek and tounge, usually spontaneously healing within a week or two. Etiology is unknown. Topical treatment is sufficient, when needed.
Idiopathic steatorrhea An old name of the disease now known as coeliac disease or gluten enteropathy
Ileocecal valve Valvula Bauhini, see Valvula Bauhini
IBD (Abbr) Inflammatory Bowel Disease
IBS (Abbr) Irritable Bowel Syndrome
ICD International Classification of Diseases, made under the supervision of WHO (World Health Organisaton). The classification is used to classify morbidity data in health care in most countries, and in death certificates. The version now used is the tenth version, ICD 10, where the codes for diseases are alfanumerical. The code for an uncomplicated gastric ulcer is K25.9.|
Icodextrin solution is used during intra-abdominal surgery in order to reduce postoperative adhesions. About 1 litre of this solution is instilled into the abdominal cavity and the solution keeps tissues separate and reduce the formation of adhesions.
Icterus (lat) see jaundice
IDCA The International Digestive Cancer alliance, a recently founded organisation the aim of which is to fight digestive cancer.
IDDM (abb) Insuline Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
IFS Information Fatigue Syndrome, a state of exhaustion ("Burn out") due to a too great flow of information.
Ig (Abbr) Immunoglobulin
IGRA Interferon Gamma Release Assay, a new test (blood sample) used to detect contact or infection with M. tuberculosis. This test is widely used before starting biologic treatment (e.g. Infliximab) in Crohns disease or Ulcerative Colitis, as this treatment is a riskfactor for tuberculosis.
Ileitis Inflammation in the ileum, the distal part of the small bowel
Ileitis terminalis Another name for Crohn´s disease.
The ileocecal valve to the left in the picture
Ileocaecal Conserning the junction between the last part of the small bowel (ileum) and the first part of the large bowel (caecum).
Ileocaecal valve Valvula Bauhini, a mechanical valve in the junction between small bowel and the first part of the large bowel, cecum. The valve prevents reflux from colon into the small bowel. Synonyms: Bauhin´s valve, Tulpius´ valve, Varolius´ valve.
Ileocolic (Adj) Relating to the last part of the small bowel and the large bowel.
Ileocolitis Inflammation in the last part of the small bowel (ileum) and the large bowel (colon). Formerly the main cause was tuberculosis, nowadays Crohns disease is the commonest cause.
Ileocolonoscopy An endoscopic examination of the large bowel, where the last part of the small bowel (ileum) is also examined.|
Ileostomy An surgically created artificial opening from the distal small bowel, ileum,. to the skin.
IM (Abbr) Intramuscular, intramuscularly
Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome A hereditary disorder causing a selective malabsorption of vitamin B12. This syndrome was found by Grasbeck from Finland and Imerslund from Norway in 1960, and Najman and Brausil had described a patient with this disorder in 1952, an so this syndrome is also called the Imerslund-Najman-Grasbeck syndrome. This is a rare syndrome and the main findings are low vitamin B12 causing a megaloblastic anaemia and proteinuria.
ImipramineA tricyclic antidepresant used in the treatment of depression. This type of drugs are also frequently used for functional gastrointestinal disorders as they alter pain perception and have effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion. The main adverse effects are dry mouth, constipation and sexual dysfunction.
Inch Linear measure, measuring length. 1 inch is 25.4 millimeters or 2.54 centimeters. 1 mm is 0.039 inches.
Incidence The frequency of new cases of a disease over a defined time interval. In the medical litterature the number of cases per 100.000 persons during one year is often used.
Incontinence, faecal Involuntary rectal emtying. According to severity faecal incontinence can be grouped into three groups: Grade I: Involuntary flatus, Grade II: Inabilitys to hold back liquid and Grade III: Inability to hold back solid stool.
Incretins A group of hormones secreted by the intestine from endocrine cells in response to nutrient intake. The most interesting incretin-hormone is glucacon like peptide (GLP-1). A drug, exenatide (trade name Byetta), mimics the effekt of GLP-1 and can be used in the treament of Diabetes mellitus.
Infliximab A new drug used in the treatment of Crohn´s disease, a specific antibody against Tumor Necrosis Factor Alfa. This drug has been proven to give a rapid relief in severe Crohn´s disease, especially in patients affected by perianal fistulation.
Inflammatory polyps See Hyperplastic polyps
Information Fatigue Syndrome (IFS) A state of exhaustion ("Burn out") due to a too great flow of information.
Inguinal (Adj) Relating to the groin.
A cervical inlet patch
Inlet patch A small area of heterotopic gastric epithelium in the cervical part of the oesophagus. This finding is common, about 2-4 % of all patients undergoing upper endoscopy have an inlet patch. The finding is considered clinically insignificant, the patch does not cause any symptoms, and there is no risk of cancer. A coincidence of Barrett oesophagus and inlet patch has been found, suggesting some kind of shared embryonic etiology.|
INR International Normalized Ratio, a lab test used in the measurement of blood coagulation. In an healthy person INR is around 1.0. Anticoagulation therapy aims at values between 2.0 and 3.0. Values above 3.0 indicates a significant risk of bleeding.|
Insulinoma A endocrine tumor usually located in the pancreas. About 10 - 15% of these tumours are malignant.This rare tumor produce insulin, causing hypoglycemia. Surgical treatment usually cures this disease.
Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA), a new test (blood sample) used to detect contact or infection with M. tuberculosis. This test is widely used before starting biologic treatment (e.g. Infliximab) in Crohns disease or Ulcerative Colitis, as this treatment is a riskfactor for tuberculosis.
International Digestive Cancer Alliance (IDCA) A recently founded organisation the aim of which is to fight digestive cancer.
Internet A worldwide system of computer networks communicating with each other. Any user can get information fron practically any other computer in "the Net". World Wide Web and Email are the two most important uses of Internet.
Intestinal (Ajd) Relating to the bowel (both the small bowel and the large bowel)
Intestinal infantilism An old name of the disease now known as coeliac disease or gluten enteropathy
Intestinal metaplasia in the mucosa of the gastric antrum
Intestinal metaplasia is a very frequent finding in the stomach in atrophic gastritis. Intestinal metaplasia can occur both the gastric antrum and in the gastric body. Mostly this finding does not have much clinical significance, but there might be some relevance concerning the pathogenesis of e.g. pernicious anaemia and gastric cancer.|
Intestinal obstruction Blockage of the small and/or large bowel. Intestinal obstruction can be caused by a tumour, inflammation or adhesions.
Intestinal lipodystrophy (Lipodystrophia intestinalis), a bowel diseaase caused by a bacterial infection (Trophenyma whippelii). This disease was first described by an American physician, Georg Hoyt Whipple in 1907 and the disease is hence named after him, Whipples disease .
Intestinum (Lat) Bowel, gut
Intestinum caecum (Lat) Caecum
Intestinum colon (Lat) Large bowel
Intestinum crassum (Lat) Large bowel, colon
Intestinum ileum (Lat) Ileum, the distal part of the small bowel
Intestinum rectum (Lat) Rectum
Intestinum tenue (Lat) Small bowel
Intra- (pre) Inside, within. For example intra-abdominal, in the abdominal cavity.
Intracellular Within a cell or cells
Intrahepatic Within the liver
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) A cholestatic disorder seen in otherwise normal pregnancies. Bile acids and aminotransferases are elevated och pruritus is the main symptom. This disease is usually not dangerous for the mother but increases the risk of preterm delivery. The aetilogy of this disease is not known, probably is origin is partly genetic.
Intravenous Within or into a vein
Intro (Pre) In, into
IP (Abbr) Intraperitoneal, intraperitoneally
IPAA (Abbr) Ileal-Pouch-Anal-Anastomosis
IRA (Abbr) Ileo-Rectal Anastomosis
Irritable bowel of Childhood See Functional diarrhea
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) A functional gastrointestinal disorder. The Rome II diagnostic criteria for this disorder are: At least 12 weeks, which need not be consecutive, in the preceding 12 months of abdominal discomfort or pain that has two out of these three features: 1. Relieved with defecation; 2. Onset associated with a change in frequency of stool; 3. Onset associated with a change in form (appearance) of stool.
Endoscopic finding in ischaemic colitis
Ischaemic colitis An large bowel injury caused by mucosal hypoxia, most often due to a vascular disorder in an artheriosclerotic patient. The symptoms start suddenly with a severe left lower abdominal pain followed by bloody stools. The diagnose can be made by a colonoscopy. Complications often develop in form of bowel necrosis, perforation and peritonitis. Mild cases resolve spontaneously within a couple of days, severe cases require emergency surgery and bowel resection.
ISDS (Abbr) International Societyu for Digestive Surgery
Islets of Langerhans Normal hormonprocucing cells in the pancreas, producing ao insulin.
Isosorbid-5-mononitrate A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris. In combination with propranolol this drug can be used as prophylaxis against variceal hemorrhage.
IV (Abbr) Intravenous, intravenously, into or within i vein, eg injection
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